When School becomes pathological – The construction of meaning and the sense of school

Autor: Mónica Videira (Psychologist)
Associação Liev Vegotsky de Formação,
Alves, Ferreira e Braga – Consultórios de Psicologia Lda.
Coimbra, Portugal
E-mail: movideira@gmail.com

Abstract: Vigotsky says that, a thought that does not materialize itself in words, fades away. By thought, we mean not only cognition, but also emotions and needs and by words we mean language, the most important vehicleof cultural and social transference, and what gives direction to those needs, creating motives/reasons that lead subject activity. This author postulates that the only way of constructing, transmitting and changing our personal sense about the world is through the use of shared meanings. Likewise, the only way of understand how this personal senses are createdis by analyzing the meaningful words that someone uses to express himself.

What we propose with this study, and using Wanda Junqueira Aguiar’s and Sérgio Ozella’s method of analysis of meaningful nuclei, is understand what are the personal senses of one student, integrated in a formal system of education and that doesn’t feel motivation/has no motive for learning, and how he  has constructed those senses.

Autor: Adílio Tomás de Sousa (Psychologist)
Associação Liev Vegotsky de Formação,
Alves, Ferreira e Braga – Consultórios de Psicologia Lda.
Coimbra, Portugal
E-mail: tomasdsousa@gmail.com

The development of a child with Special Educational Needs (SEN) and conception of the Personnel Educational Program (PEP) are inseparable matters of the well known concept of Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), presented by Liev Vigotsky in the beginning of the twentieth century.

By making a new assessment, the psychologist finds changes in the ZPD. What should he do when his forced to alter the scoring of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, so that the child remains with the same PEP?

Should not the concept of inclusion, mentioned in 3/2008, 7thJanuary’s bill, embrace the children’s with SEN entitlement to development?

7. Why was my life retarded? 17 years of misjudgement

Parada, Cristina

Abstract: The present expose searches to make an analysis concerning as a nearly diagnosis of intellectual disability in a child of 2 years labeled a steady judgment that limits her chances of a further development and the possibility of a life of their own choices. The future of the individual is traced from the beginning by and with others who, in an often pseudo-inclusive posture, allow options socially predetermined.

6. Without the Others, we become autistic: Vigotskyan therapy with an autistic teenager

Ana Lúcia Duarte

Abstract: According to Liev Vigotsky, for someone to be able to speak, there must be the need to tell something, to someone else. This paper aims to describe the case study of a thirteen year old teenager previously diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, and how, through therapy, we created this “need to tell” and made it a new motive, a path to the open, fluid, spontaneous spoken language. Neuropsychological evaluations were made in the beginning of the therapy, twelve sessions later and then another twelve sessions later. Therapeutic techniques and results are discussed.

5. Awareness of Consciousness in Therapy

Jorge, Ana

Abstract: Assuming that consciousness is the object of study of psychology and language the main working tool that allows the access to the meanings (the main shapers of consciousness), we see that the formation of conscience does not happen spontaneously. Consciousness only emerges with discomfort, conflict and in the activity objectual because the true activity is objectual. This work has as main purpose to realize that failure to promote development of consciousness affects the whole act of the individual, limiting their freedom of choice because there is no possibility to re-evaluate and reflect actual needs, nor to go against the true grounds of humanaction.

4. Entitlement to (the) Development

Tomás de Sousa, Adílio

Abstract: The development of a child with Special Educational Needs (SEN) and conception of the Individualized Education Program (IEP) are in separable matter softhewell known concept of Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), presented by Liev Vigotsky in the beginning of the twentieth century. The present expose aims to express the need to re-elaborate the IEP according to a child´s ZDP evolution and display the misinter pretation of the concept “permanent” in the universe of SEN. As it is known the IEP has a very important role in a child´s development, in the way she sees others, how the others see her, how the school sees her and how the parents see her. What is the parent´s role in this process? Is it a signature enough?

3. Proposal for rehabilitation of autism

Author: Pedro Ferreira Alves, Clinic Psychologist
Instituto Liev Vegostsky de Formação, Portugal

The main objective of this work is to, starting from a case study, to analyse and understand the construction of the autistic personality within the Historical-Relational Psychology, which has its foundations on the ideas developed by Liev Vegostskii and Maria Rita Leal.

Following a therapeutic model under the guidelines of the Historical-Relational Psychology, the four-year-old patient has been observed since June 2010.

The goal is to demonstrate, through the visioning of a video encompassing two of the three stages of the aforementioned therapeutic proposal. In a first stage, the objective endeavoured the structuring of a mental organisation in which, “Mutual Attention” – the primal acquisition for rehabilitation – becomes possible. The methodology of “Mutually Contingent Exchange” was used through the resource to an innate pattern of contingence resonance to one’s own initiative.

In a second stage, the objective was to make available a range of vocabulary reasonably articulated and the acquisition of “Significant-Words”. The “Point out by both” methodology was used, structured within a relational pattern of shared attention.

2. Historical-Relational Therapeutic Approach of a patient with Child Psychosis

Author: Tâmara Rodrigues, Psicóloga Clínica
Instituto Liev Vegostsky de Formação, Portugal

Quoting Rita Mendes Leal (2006), “life is inter-woven, since its beginning to its end, in a pattern of presence and contact relationship with an “object” that responds and establishes an encounter with the world beyond it, transcending the relationship” (2006: 10). The objective of this work is to, starting from a case study of a child with child psychosis, to reflect on this pattern of relationship within which the mental apparel is structured.

Based on the Post-Classic psychology, finding its ground on the works of Vegostky, Luria, Leontiev, Leal and Aires, we intend to analyse and put into work the development of this child during a period of four months of historical-relational psychology.

The way this individual integrates and deals with the world is, so far, a biological pattern of relations. Although it has acquired some speech and behaviour patterns, those are not enough to cope with the lack of comfort felt in the presence of others (felt as strangers) and in face of new activities (social demands) that trigger uneasiness.

The child as been followed since December 2010, and the psycho therapist has been working as a skilled care-giver bestowing herself to the relationship in order to repair the movement of development and of transformation of the triangle Self (I) – Other (Carer)  – Object (historical-cultural instruments).

This path does not follow a route pre-determined by any conditions of biological hereditary, but is, opposed to that, structured by Acting motivated within the social relations with other human-beings, giving birth to new neuronal networks that cease to obey to the laws of biological functioning. The structuring of new dynamics allows for new behaviour patterns that characterise the mind, a new reality that happens according to the laws of Psychology.

1.Dyslexia: case study

Author: ALVES, Alexandra Ferreira
Instituto Liev Vegostsky de Formação, Portugal

Abstract: A dyslexic child reveals a reading learning disability, no revealing any hearing, motor, intellectual or emotionally deficiency. Her learning potential is intact but, she doesn’t easily learn how to read, despite understanding spoken language and using it (Jonhson e Myklebust, 1964).
Dyslexia do not usually appear alone, it appears part of a constellation of problems, justifying the sub- structure of brain areas, responsible for the symbolic capabilities, uniquely human. In the school context there is a high number of children diagnosed with dyslexia, they committed to their learning and development.
This research stems from the author’s interest in this subject and presents a proposal for intervention with a child diagnosed with dyslexia, based on psychotherapy and neuropsychological habilitation, with weekly attendance, over 16 sessions. The overall objective is to assess the qualitative differences in the child’s performance in reading tasks, after the psychological and neuropsychological intervention.